Keywords are "purposes of the donor or founder of the award". True altruism aside, there exists a mercantile business element, for want of a better word, described as reciprocal altruism. A favour done today - food offered, shelter given - brings a return favour tomorrow. On a higher moral plane, scholarships are generally recognised in many flavours:
- Merit based - to recognise academic, artistic , athletic or other abilities. Most common merit-based scholarships recognize academic records or high scores on standardized tests.
- Need-based - to sponsor a student's financial needs, in due consideration of the expected family contribution and cost of attendance at the intended institute of learning.
- Student-specific - scholarships which quality applicants by gender, race, religion, family and medical history. More commonly meant to assist targeted minorities, like aboriginal groups in Australia or Canada.
- Career-specific - given to students pursuing careers in high-need areas such as education or nursing, or by private corporations as recruitment incentives.
"The other two boys - Ho Ching's children - are both bright. One has taken a scholarship at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The other doesn't want a scholarship even though he could easily get one... It's a different world because his father can pay, and so that is not important.
If I were the father, I'd say, no, you better take that scholarship and come back. Why should I spend $300,000 or $400,000 for nothing? I can put down half the payment for a house for you! "
(page 421, "Hard Truths To Keep Singapore Going")