Saturday, August 22, 2015

Sorry, Mr President

"Teach less, learn more" has to be the ultimate oxymoron. The idiots who implemented the policy in 2005 cut up to 20 percent of content in the syllabuses at primary, secondary and pre-university levels. Thanks the trimming of knowledge base, we now have senior civil servants who  can't spell the name of Singapore's first President correctly.

Ravi Menon, managing director of Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), may own up to the embarrassing gaffe, but he had a whole staff who must have had half a chance to proof read the booklet which accompanied the issue of the SG50 commemorative notes.
"This should never have happened, is not acceptable, and I take full responsibility. I apologise on behalf of my colleagues who worked hard to prepare the notes and folders but are deeply disappointed that we made this most unfortunate mistake. We will put this right."

The education system has to be blamed if officers at that level (read income tax bracket) are so careless, and disrespectful of our history. According to Heng Swee Keat, the systematic reduction "include content that relies on recall or focuses on technical details not critical to students' understanding". Thanks to the debasement of instant recall, "Yusof" was spelled "Yusok". Instant recall would have prevented the other gaffe of cockles being mistaken as an ingredient in mee-siam.

And the Education Minister wants to cut school content further - and pay the teachers 5 to 9% more for the exorcism - this time purportedly to focus on critical learning. Asked by Fareed Zakaria about encouraging creativity, Tharman Shanmugaratnam said, "The toughest question to ask ourselves... is not what we add to the education system, but what we subtract." Indiscriminate use of the scissors can only lead to a sanitised version of our past, and mislead a whole future generation that only one name needs to be remembered. And spelled correctly.


  1. "The toughest question to ask ourselves... is not what we add to the education system, but what we subtract."

    "The toughest question to ask ourselves in GE 2015... is not what we add to LHL's PAP team, system, but what we subtract."
    - just how many PAP MPs whould we vote out?

    Personally, I think the fewer PAP MP, the better.
    It's not as if the large number of Ministers appointed by PM Lee has made life better for Singaporeans.
    All we have is just a very bloated and expensive government.

    1. Really?

      What if the incumbents lose 40 seats?

      From where to find enough ministers to form the cabinet?

      In the contrary, the current seats are too few.

      Should expand to 150 seats. Win-win-win situation.

      Even if incumbents lose 50 seats, they still can choose the ministers from the elected pool of 100. A win for the incumbents.

      50 alternative voices are elected. A win for the opposition.

      Significant opposition representatives for the sinkies. A win for the people.


    Useless content like one mans story that has been excessively taught should be reduced. I am simply amazed at how our young know so little that we have been around for 196 years going on 200 yrs soon. But all we have our sight on is the last 40+10 years of one party dictatorship. In the long arc of history, these sultans or founding father or modern father and whatnot, is just a red dot in the historical timeline. The people has to get over that one sided narrative as soon as they can like the sg50 fish cakes!

    Source : link from harish pillay site.

    1. In the contrary, it is not enough.

      The law should be amended to read one story every morning for all school students before classes start for the day.

      All workers mandated to recite a passage from the hard truths.

      A compulsory test on the hard truths for all students. Failure to pass will be denied entry into universities, polys and ITEs.

  3. Just when you think all the screw ups cannot get any worse, you wake to to find that your country is worse than Zimbawe, who despite their third world reputation, had never managed to print money with spelling mistakes.

    1. Please don't mis-spell Lee Kuan Yew's name.
      I have seen many mis-spellings like:

      Lee Con Yew or
      Lee Con You.

      Please note the correct spelling: Lee Kuan Yew.

    2. Never heard of 'Zimbawe'.
      You must be a Singaporean !

    3. Pls dun spell BALDTUCK wrongly.

      It is spelt "BOTAK "!

      Neither is it spelt BORETUCK!

  4. So does it serve as a proof that it was all a farce as if they were never sincere about honouring a Malay President just at the eve of an impending erection?

    If they don't do something like that to balance the over glorification of the horrible old man, they would be accused of proving Amos right isn't it? But if that kind of recognition is accompanied by even spelling the name wrong, how sincere can they be ?

    By the way what does that MAS man mean by 'accepting full responsibility' ? Continue his job as usual just like one of his bosses as if nothing really serious happened even when billions were lost?

    1. It means they own up, and repent by reprinting.
      Just like Breadtalk with the 50,000 floss buns lah.
      Just like the PA audit and the corrected lapses.
      Just like the Brompton bikes in procurement lapses.
      Just like the many other cases, until they are caught, they are honest and integrity people.
      And remember, even these mistakes are good intentioned for our own good. Never doubt their passion and sincerity.
      These are the right mantra and the right things to say.

    2. "Teach less, learn more" also is meant for sinkies good?

      Teach less ( right ways ), learn more ( wrong ways and mistakes?

      Exemplary mantra ( and values ) to impart to the younger generation?

      Made mistakes just say honestly made?

      Somemore made for your own good .....?

      Palmer should have use this reasoning ..... and he could still be the Speaker .....?

  5. from GOV.SG

    from NLB

    from national archives of singapore

    from sportsingapore

    from MOE

    from MDA

    Cannot blame them lah.
    This is NOT a once in 50 years mistake.
    It has been repeatedly throughout all the text or releases from your very own ministries. So why the source is crooked and wrong, the understudy are also all wrong lor...

    Now you have to agree with heng about putting the wrong person in charge right!? Try convince me we have the right people in charge instead !

  6. //"Teach less, learn more" has to be the ultimate oxymoron.//


    When one takes TLLM too far ( and to the extreme ) and many get carried away, it used to be OPM and OPT. Other people's money and other people's time. Nowadays it may be even OPC.

    Indeed, when they experimented TLLM to the extreme and sinkies blindly wholesale swallowed it like North Korean common folks fanatically obliging whatever Kim Jong Um says, it may becom like the aftermath of China during Cultural Revolution between 1966-1976 when the easily influenced young Red Guards even chained and shackled their own parents and paraded them on the streets with humiliating placard hanging from their necks and backs. Many even beat up and tortured their parents, some to death.

    Recently, one experiment ended up with underaged 12 yo kids attempting extreme mountaineering in scaling 10,000 ft above ground bare cliff along the Via Ferrata route and walk the torq. An acident and time bomb waiting to happen. It is so easy for people in ivory towers collecting high pay shouting motherhood statements and ( preposterous) commands from their high arm chairs and experimenting using OPC, other people's children. When arm chairs general direcf a war, the ending seldom inspires.

    An education system has failed monumentally when labour productivity languishes year in year out in negative territory and a huge proportion of GDP growth is attained via the back route of mindless building and building instead of through productivity and real technological advancements and efficiencies ( not wayang PIC scheme to show in reports but hardly any significant improvements on the ground and where matters ).

    Typical arrogant aristocratic air, disconnected and disjointed policy making combined with paper generals commanding from their arm chairs are potent concoction with toxicity poisonous enough to kill even a 5 ton elephant. Featherweight 50kg Sinkies are unlikely to stand much chance when given such toxic concoction and prescriptions in the long race to stay ahead in a competitive pack. To falter and fall far behind is inevitable. To drop out of sight in time to come is as certain as the sun setting in the west every evening.

  7. // The education system has to be blamed if officers at that level (read income tax bracket) are so careless, and disrespectful of our history.//

    The above statement is as much a gross understatement as what PM said recently about sinkieland "running out of easy options for economic growth".

    The damage to sinkieland's future by a dysfunctional educational system is not limited to just a wrong signature on 45,000 YOG certificates already given to participants and the waste of many tens of millions more to reprint and resend to each and every one of them as far away as in the Andes mountains in South America and the deserted Saharan Desert in the African continent.

    It is far more wide reaching and ranging with destructive and devastating ramifications rippling beyond SG100 ( if we live to see that day ).

    To paraphrase PM's words, it could have read: "We are bankrupt of any ideas to move the economy forward."

    Besides, what is left unsaid probably read as follows:

    "To grow the economy, we only know one thing. To keep adding inputs ( read unlimited and infinite foreign labour ) progressively to create ( the false impression of ) GDP growth. Sinkieland still have 10 to 15 more years to reach 7m and another 30 years to reach 10 m. Hell, what is this shit study of economics about! I am a math genius! When we hit 10m, what is stopping the march to 20m and beyond that, 30m? Bingo, we will have economic growth till SG100. And we will also have met our target of 2/3% Sinkies core. What was missing behind the official version was the % sign behind the 2/3 core. Mind you, mathematically it means 0.67% and NOT 67%. See, I already said I am a mathematics genius. When I said 2/3, the daft take it literally. When the population grows to 30m by SG100 and sinkies are shrinking, how can sinkies make up 2/3 core. Mathematically it won't add up. 66% instant trees and 0.67% sinkies will. Ha ha ha ......"

  8. Correct spelling of former President is "Yusof Ishak"

    What is the correct spelling of current President?
    Yusuk Isit?

    1. Pls dun misspell current president name.

      It is Tony Tan, not "Hony Tan".

      Pls take note and be mindful.

  9. After the horse had long bolted, the aristocrats might still pretend to roll out many measures to secure the gate!

    When our TFR had already fallen to a point of no return, the aristocrats might try more stunts to hoodwink ( and pacify ) sinkies .......

    When the opportunities to reverse the rapidly declining TFR in 1990s were overlooked and missed, sinkieland's and sinkies fate were sealed. Whatever bull shit rolled out so far had failed and will continue to fail. A leopard doesn't change its spots. Unless the leopard turns vegetarian ( which is as good as the sun impossibly setting in the east ), the preys in the jungle will get lesser each passing day. It is inevitable. To survive, the leopard needs to devour more preys. The aristocrats leeches on sinkies no less than the predators hunting, ambushing, killing, devouring, sinking their sharp teeth into the herbivores and biting off chunks of bloody flesh even when they are still alive. ......

    1. Aristocrats at the top of the predatory food chain?

  10. Sinkies are damn petty!

    Even PM needs to apologise and sinkies still "Baey Song" .....

  11. Sinkies are too demanding. .....

    They want the sky, the moon, the stars ..... ( Ai Qi Ai pi Yew Ai tua liap Ni, Yew Ai kia choo bi, Yew mai tiok HIV ) knn .....

    Is PM going to oblige them tonight in his NDR 2015 address to the nation and spoil sinkies further?

    Or the better prescription is more spurs into their hides to make them be more hard driving, run faster, work cheaper, produce better .....?

    Got CBF?

    Cheaper, Better, Faster!

    The best principle and modern management mantra to build the best society in the world --- according to one little red dot's Super Hero nicknamed Zorro The Charming Prince aka Say Swee Swee Bor Zhao Chiu .......

  12. In the bill put up by the Education Minister to rename ISEAS to ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute, ostensibly to honour him, this clause was sneaked in:
    "Clause 6 streamlines the composition of the ISEAS Board from 22 to 15 members, and updates appointment authorities for the Board."

    "We are wondering whether the Government is sincere in honouring Encik Yusof Ishak because, is it a disguise in honouring Encik Yusof Ishak by changing the name, for control of ISEAS by changing the appointment power of the Board?" - Low Thia Kiang
    What do you think?

    Is the inclusion of the figure of LKY in the gold $50 commemorative note the preliminary step to having his portrait adorn future notes in place of Yusof Ishak? Are they also politicising this, in the run-up to the General Election? Sorry, Mr President.

    1. Hope the name on the building is not misspell wrongly. .....

    2. "Fortunately" it is not ......

  13. // "This should never have happened, is not acceptable, and I take full responsibility. I apologise on behalf of my colleagues who worked hard to prepare the notes and folders but are deeply disappointed that we made this most unfortunate mistake. We will put this right." //

    It is just an honest mistake?

    Or a ( dishonestly ) careless mistake?

    Why put some people in an embarrassing position?

  14. 醉翁之意不在酒?

  15. YOG certificates fiasco ( and national embarrassment ) was preceded by (Ms) Vivi.

    SG50 commemorative notes fiasco ( and national face palm ) is preceded by Mr Ravi.

    TLLM educational fiasco ( and national mourning for the 7 young perish souls at Mt KK ) was preceded by Mr Botak.

    Any common denominator?

    The product of a decade of TLLM or MLLT?

  16. LKY on trying to justify the competency with paying high salary to top civil servant. This is what he said: " And I do not think you could put humpty dumpty together again". Now we know, it can be put together by sticker from those infallible obscenely paid high flyers.

    1. 高薪养honest mistake?

  17. " The idiots who implemented the policy in 2005 cut up to 20 percent of content in the syllabuses at primary, secondary and pre-university levels. "

    Was not TLLM the initiative of Botak?

  18. The origin of "TLLM":

    Below extracts from the speech that " kickstart the subsequent fiascoes, oops, honest mistakes" ......


    Dr Ng Eng Hen,

    Minister for Manpower and 2nd Minister for Education

    Mr Chan Soo Sen,

    Minister of State for Education

    Mr Hawazi Daipi,

    Senior Parliamentary Secretary

    General Lim Chuan Poh,

    Permanent Secretary

    Miss Seah Jiak Choo,

    Director-General of Education


    Ladies & Gentlemen,

    To Light A Fire: Enabling Teachers, Nurturing Students

    Opening Remarks

    1 Many of you have told me how you were inspired by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong’s inaugural National Day Rally Speech. I am sure all of you were also struck by the fact that a substantial portion of his speech was dedicated to Education. It was the strongest statement possible of the importance that Education holds for Singapore’s future. It is through Education that we will nurture and inspire the next generation of Singaporeans, and through their ideas, convictions and passions, will make the future of our country.

    2 “Teach Less, Learn More” has caught the imagination of educationists, students and parents, and the public and media. It has lit a fire of its own. It also goes to the heart of what we are trying to do in education.

    3 At the MOE Work Plan Seminar last year, we set out our priorities in education for the next few years. We set out to promote Innovation & Enterprise (I&E) in our schools, to better prepare our young for a changing and more complex future. I&E described the spirit of inquiry, and the tenacity, that we have to nurture in our students. It was also a call to all our teachers and stakeholders to re-look at the way we do things, and to reassess our assumptions and beliefs, so as to better realise the goals of an ability-driven education system.

    4 I&E is a continuing journey, not a once-off task. We are introducing greater flexibility into our educational structures and curriculum. But at its core, I&E is about a qualitative change in the interactions between teachers and students, in and out of the classroom. It is about teaching less and learning more, about spurring independent thinking and learning, and about encouraging students to follow their passions. It requires that we reassess the ‘why’ and the ‘how’ of teaching and learning.

    Consultation with Stakeholders

    5 The initiatives I will be describing today are the result of many months of hard work by MOE officials, school leaders and teachers. We have consulted several hundred stakeholders in education over the last 6 months. Recently, we also started the Education Forum – a series of dialogue sessions with students, teachers and parents, to gather further feedback and ideas, and to bounce off some of the proposals MOE has been working on. We have had six such dialogues in recent weeks. We have also engaged another key set of stakeholders, our employers, through a newly established Industry Roundtable on Education. We brought in leading industry players, local and expatriate, to give us their considered views on the future economic landscape, and the skills and attitudes they feel Singaporeans will need to thrive in the future.

    6 I will highlight some of the key ideas and suggestions that have surfaced from these several rounds of discussion."

    1. Now the sinkies "backsides also kena lighted a fire"?

  19. Further extracts from "TLLM" speech:

    " A Robust System

    7 But let me first state what must surely be obvious. We do not need to turn the cart over and start again.

    8 We have a strong and robust education system, that has been a key source of competitive strength for Singapore. It is a key differentiator, something that still gives us an edge today over many other cities. Our teachers, parents and students live education seriously, and set high aspirations for themselves. We have avoided the large disparities in educational standards seen elsewhere, between schools for the privileged and those for the masses. All our schools are well-resourced, staffed with capable and reflective leaders, and well-motivated, thinking teachers."

    From the latest late president's name spelling mistake fiasco on the SG50 commemorative notes, definitely "It is a key differentiator" ( Point (8), 2nd sentence ).

    Also it has proven that "We have a strong and robust education system," ( Point (8), 1st sentence ).

    "But let me first state what must surely be obvious." ( Point (7), 1st sentence) "We do not need to turn the cart over and start again." ( Point (7), 2nd sentence ) But we must and need to paste corrective stickers on the SG50 commemorative notes for the spelling mistakes but this is not turning the cart over and no necessity for that. Simple paste over will do? Lol

  20. More extracts:

    " 11 We know that if we stick to all we have done in the past, and seek comfort in all our long-held assumptions and beliefs, we will not be fulfilling our mission of preparing our children, and Singapore, for the future. In a very real sense, we will not be nurturing a generation of Singaporeans who are able to break new ground and chart new directions for Singapore, instead of following what others before them have done."

    Well said. It must be describing the " frequent breaking of new grounds in our mrt system".

    And it must be surely speaking of the "new grounds broken at NOL in recent years".

    Botak's rhetoric sounds " so good and high standard". So "learned and impressive".

    It surely "would sink sinkieland to deeper depth"?

  21. Further extracts:

    " 13 What’s critical as we go forward is that we respect all talents, and nurture diversity. We should positively encourage a diversity of talents - in intellectual fields, in the arts and sports, and in community endeavour. We should value people with irregular strengths, not make them regular. It is the irregular and unusual talents and ideas that give most great cities their energy and vitality."

    When it comes to " famous Amos", did they practise what they preached and value Amos' "irregular and unusual talents" and not try "make" him "regular"?

    Or is it all plain high sounding rhetoric to "tickle the lampa sick and the nipples ticklish" beyond "wet dreams and organisms "?

  22. 嘴Kong lampa song?

  23. "Wet dreams are made of white?
    Who are sinkies to disagree?
    Travel the work with sinkies tax $$$?
    Until all the males and females in white reach the 7 seas?"

    1. *Travel the world

      Typo. .....

  24. "TLLM" education system "BOTAK TENG"?

  25. Despite not seeing eye to eye with the incumbents many policies, politics and elections are mostly about choosing a lesser evil. With featherweight alternative(s) contesting against good incumbent candidate(s), it is hard not to choose the incumbent(s) ....... and convince all family members, friends and relatives to do likewise. Please enlighten and give some good, compelling reasons to choose otherwise.

    A heartland swing voter

    1. dear heartland swing voter.
      if you want your cpf money return back to you at 55 years old, you better vote Opposition.
      Why anyone would vote for a political party that cannot keep its promise on the 100% return of cpf money at 55 I do not understand.

  26. Any kind uncle / auntie know where to volunteer and attend the incumbents future rallies and join in the clapping and beating of gongs and cheers for our enlightened and hardworking leaders who toiled day and night for the poor and disadvantaged Singaporeans. Saw some incumbent MPs and altruistic grassroot and rc volunteers even personally lugged rice packs and delivered groceries and daily necessities to many one and two room flats dwellers. Singaporeans really身在福中不知福 。。。。。。ingrates!

  27. At the next Opposition Party election rally.
    Can we all Singaporeans please stand up together and give a mighty shout:

    We need to let "them" know that we no longer welcome Traitors in Singapore.

    We want to tell every Singaporean out there.
    We will not tolerate anymore Traitors in Singapore.

    At every Opposition rally all over the island of Singapore.
    Let this be the rally shout of all Singaporean patriots.


  28. After listening to the 2015 NDR speech, as a typical Sinkie, cannot help but impressed by PM's fluent delivery in three languages.

    The myriad goodies make the head cannot help but say support the incumbents, as a typical sinkies.

    As a typical Sinkie, cannot help but bought over by the carrots offered. The head says it's too tempting and the mouth already drooling .....

    Somehow the heart is emotionless ......


    Head vs Heart ......

    An eternal internal battle till the 11th hour .....

    To be or not to be?

    Will it lead to the same outcome ......?

    Oh dear. .....

    Who am I?

    I am who?

    What shall I do?

    Do what shall I?

    Till the wire, till the wire ....?

    Too close to call ...?

    Oh dear ......

    1. The answer may lie in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

      At SG50, it seems sinkieland is still stuck at the bottom of the Maslow's hierarchy of needs pyramid for most sinkies. ....

      Fortunately or unfortunately, the essence of the speech seems to revolve around the basic physiological needs which is the lowest level at the bottom of Maslow's needs pyramid.

      Even at level 2 which is safety, many sinkies don't feel safe.

      Sinkies are worried about their jobs.

      Sinkies are worried about their future.

      Sinkies are worried about their children.

      Sinkies are worried about their retirements.

      Sinkies are even worried about their lifetime savings --- their CPF ......

      As for level 3 --- Love and Sense of Belonging, the mass influx of recent decades probably has caused sinkieland to be 面目全非 --- almost unrecognisable.

      There is nothing sinister with regards to the speech. It was a good speech, very competently delivered. However, somehow it seems despite being at a silver jubilee, Sinkieland still seems to be struggling at the most lowest level of the Maslow's hierarchy of needs, at least for many sinkies.

      It seems logical that as a society, Maslow's hierarchy of needs is one of the potentially good yardsticks to assess sinkies progress as a people.

      As for level 4 - Self-Esteem and level 5 - Self-Actualisation, many sinkies probably can't empathise with both.

      Perhaps these sum up all where many sinkies are at now. Many are still struggling at level 1 at SG50. Yet another bulk are stuck in between level 1 and 2, feeling insecured about many things including their confidence in the future.

      What does this young nation needs to make most sinkies propel beyond levels 1 and 2 into at least level 3?

      This may be the crux which may be critically missing in the speech.

      Some may be won over by it but likely many others may not bcos such things are easily forgotten and they may not resonate in people's heart when they make up their minds .....

      In the next few weeks, the national mouth pieces may bombard sinkies with news of goodies after goodies but based on the law of marginal diminishing returns, beyond the basics and certain levels, people are indifferent and even numb to such material carrots.

      Perhaps, more heartware and not hardware may be what is crucially needed to win people over at this juncture.

      But it is easier said than done.

  29. Vote Opposition if you want your cpf money back at 55 years old.
    Do you think PAP has broken their 50 year old promise of returning our cpf money back to us at 55 years old?

    1. Is that what someone wants such that he or she chooses the opposition?

      Perhaps that may be too simplistic and the unsophisticated brain level of a simpleton.

      There are people who needs all their cpf by 55.

      But there are also many who probably don't need their cpf by 55.

      If you pursue your objective only by what you advocated, you only win over some people and probably below 50%.

      But if you can tell people that they have a choice, you will give them a choice, you have won over many in both groups of the divide. You have won over more than 50%.

      Perhaps that is the reason many sinkies ( the majority ) are not won over by the alternatives all these years and currently only represented in tokens rathed than predominantly.

  30. Some issues are touched on in the NDR 2015 speech such as income ceiling, AHG ( additional CPF housing grant ), paternity leave, baby bonus, SIT, CHAS and PGP .....

    But predominantly many measures can be perceived as carrots and mostly piece meal in nature and may not solve the root causes of the challenges faced by our society.

    By far, the most daring step was the further massive intervention in the AHG and raising qualifying income ceiling from 6,500 to 8,500 and the the grant from $20,000 to $40,000. This massive intervention to help make up for some of the difference in the widening divergent gap happening for the past 25 years of property prices and the real income of new job entrants.

    On the surface, many of the ( piece meal and stop gap ) measures appeared bold and generous but a closer scrutiny seems to indicate the incumbents are chasing the problems then getting ahead of the curve to eradicate or solve the challenges holistically from the root causes.

    Nonetheless, many sinkies may not think deeper and further and it would not be surprisingly many would swallow the carrots hook, line and sinker wholesale. The incumbents may have done enough to win the majority's support.

    The main concern is what would ensue over the next five years between 2016 to 2010?

    1. The AHG scheme, though good in nature, has several rough edges.

      Foremost, it is opened to "abuse and freeloaders gaming" the scheme.

      1) New citizens or instant trees. The burden of financing the scheme is by and large borned by the entire society. Freeloaders can take advantage of the scheme with no intention to fulfil the objectives of the policy measure which is primarily to boost sinkies birthrate.

      Freeloaders can buy and then dispose of the property after the MOP ( minimum occupation period), pocketing the profits. If they take up citizenship in another country thereafter, they can cashout every single cent in the CPF including the $40,000 grant paid for predominantly by sinkies taxpayers.

      If they stay put, these group of freeloaders will burden sinkies who spend a lifetime breaking their back raising their offspring and these offspring will bear future tax and other burdens to subsidize and finance all these freeloaders' old age needs.

  31. The flip side of the equation of some sections of the population receiving the goodies is the additional outflow on the government's expenditures.

    Where would these additional outlay come from?

    How do they intend to finance those additional carrots?

    The authority may feel the pinch of incurring such additional expenditure and likely will find ways ( after the election in the next five years till possibly end of 1Q2021 ) to take back to cover the additional outlay and from past anecdotal experiences would likely end up taking back many times more than the carrots they " gave" .......

    By feeling the pinch, the incumbents forgot all these monies come from and taken from the people on a daily and regular basis. How would the people feel and cope with such burdens on a ongoing basis year in year out?